Ancestral ROLL Family - Churches of our Forefathers

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[ TRANSLATE: | German Churches | Russian Churches | North Dakota Churches | 1618 German Religion Map | German-American Church Genealogy Chart | Russian Catholic Map ]

GERMAN CHURCHES (Alphabetized by city name)



ST. ??? EVANGELICAL CHURCH (-) - Dimbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
The church was converted into a school.


SCHWEINHEIMER CATHOLIC CHURCH (1151) - Jockgrim, Pfalz, Germany
Jockgrim's first church located about 2 miles south of Jockgrim.

a.
ST. DIONYSIUS CATHOLIC CHURCH (1772) - Jockgrim, Pfalz, Germany
a) Inside view of the church in 1944.


ST. GEORGE CATHOLIC CHURCH (1968) - Jockgrim, Pfalz, Germany
Jockgrim's newest church located in the center of town.


ST. ALBAN CATHOLIC CHURCH () - Kirchhausen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

a. b. c. d.
ST. GERTRUDIS CATHOLIC CHURCH (960-Present) - Leimersheim, Pfalz, Germany
The first church which was built in 960. The second church (a), completed in 1731, was torn down and the modern style church (c) was build in 1964 with the alter and chor from the old one. The patron saint is Gertrud from Nivelles (626-659). She was a nun and parton of gardeners and voyagers. b) Inside the 1763 church. d) Inside the 1964 church.

  
EMPEROR CATHEDRAL AT SPEYER (1030) - Speyer, Pfalz, Germany
The Diocese of Speyer (Spira) in Bavaria (now Rhineland-Pflaz) has two patron saints: St. Maria and St. Stephan. The city of Speyer dates back to the stronghold of Noviomagus, in the territory of the German tribe of the Nemetes, on the left bank of the Rhine. In the course of time a Roman municipality (Colonia Nemetum) developed out of this stronghold; in 451 the municipality was entirely destroyed by Attila. From its ashes arose a new city, Spira of Speyer. Christianity found entrance into the city in the time of the Romans. The first bishop, Jesse (Jessius), is mentioned in the Acts of the synods of Sardica (343) and of Cologne (346), but his historicity is not quite certain. On the other hand there is positive proof of Bishop Hilderich who attended the Synod of Paris held in 614. Since his episcopate the succession of bishops has been unbroken. In 748 Speyer was made suffragan of Mainz; and in 1030 the first stone of the present Romanesque Cathedral of Our Lady was laid; it was intended to be the mausoleum of the Salian emperors. The church was consecrated in 1061.
In the struggle over investitures, Bishops Huzmann (1073-90) and Johann I (1090-1104) upheld the Emperor Henry IV and died under the ban of the Church. In 1146 St. Bernard preached the Crusade at Speyer and won King Conrad III to the cause. Beside the four Salian emperors, Philip of Swabia, Rudolph of Habsburg, and the rival kings, Adolph of Nassau and Albert of Austria, are also buried in the cathedral. A lay brotherhood, the Twelve Brothers of Prayer, prayed without intermission in the cathedral, for the repose of the souls of these kings. Among the later bishops Matthias of Ramung (1464-78) should be especially mentioned for his reforming the clergy and people, and bringing new life into the diocese.
Between 1082 and 1111 there was a widening. After a conflagration in 1159 the dome was build up again. At the time of the Reformation several Diets were held at Speyer, the most important being in 1526 and 1529. In 1526 the condition of political affairs enabled the Protestants to secure the relatively favourable decision that each constituent state should act in reference to the matters contained in the Edict of Worms (1521) as it could answer to God and the emperor. But the action taken in 1529 was more decided: the Edict of Worms was to be executed, and the ecclesiastical innovations were to be abolished. Against this the Evangelical constituents protested. By the Reformation the diocese lost two thirds of its churches and benefices. Bishop Eberhard von Dienheim (1581-1610) sought to introduce the reforms ordered by the Council of Trent in the remaining territory. The gains temporally acquired during the Thirty Year's War were nearly all lost by the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The diocese suffered greatly during the predatory wars of Louis XIV of France, and in 1689 the city and cathedral were burned. In 1794 the cathedral, which had been restored at great expense, was once more ravaged by the lawless soldiery of the French Revolution. In 1801 that part of the diocese on the left bank of the Rhine had to be ceded to Mainz; in 1815 the diocese was assigned to Bavaria; in 1817 it received new boundaries in the Bavarian Concordat and was made suffragan of the new metropolitan Bamberg. By the liberality of King Louis I of Bavaria, the cathedral was suitably decorated (1846-53), the frescoes being done by Schraudolph. The church was fully restorated in the 1900 century.The area of the diocese corresponds to that of the Bavarian Palatinate of the Rhine. Dr. Michael Faulhaber, formerly a professor at the University of Strasburg, was appointed bishop in 1910. The diocese has 120 deaneries, 235 parishes, 6 curacies, 86 chaplaincies and vicarships, 377 secular clergy, and 10 regular clergy. The Catholic population is 413,481; the Protestant population is about 500,000. The diocese has also 1 Dominican monastery (Oggersheim), 1 Capuchin monastery (St. Ingbert), and 100 houses for nuns
Source: The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV & Mr. Franz Pfadt

Insignia of the Teutonic Order
The Knights of the German Order (Teutonic Knights) were one of the most influencial organizations which shaped Germany and central Europe from the 12th century onward.

St. Mary of the Teutonic Knights
The complex was built in Jerusalem in the 1100's by the Order of the Teutonic Knights. The church was dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, and the other buildings included a guesthouse and a hospital. To the right is a road leading to the German hospital, and the road itself is called the "Street of the Germans." The building was excavated and renovated in the 1970s.



RUSSIAN CHURCHES (Alphabetized by city name)

Catholics first appeared in Siberia in small numbers during the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. During a surprise attack, some German Catholic knights and their servants were taken prisoners and exiled by the czar to Siberia. The number of Catholics later increased. Most of them, of course, were Poles and Germans. Dispite the years of communist repression, the Catholic Church has survived in Russia. [ MAP ]


Prior to communist rule, Orthodox was the official Russian religion. This is a 1850's print of a Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow.

A comment by Joseph Schnurr in his book, "die Kirchen und das religioese Leben der Russlanddeutschen, Katholischer Teil" (1980):
"The German Catholics of the Black Sea region stemmed from various parts of Germany, and they brought their song books with them to Russia and preserved them from generation to generation. Especially beloved was the songbook of the diocese of Speier, that was venerated like a relic, examples of the first edition from the year 1768 could still be found in the first quarter of our century." (p. 65). [i.e., they preserved copies into the 1920s].
A quotation from Joseph Schnurr: "We German-Russians have all the freedoms of our religion we enjoyed in German villages and towns."
Schnurr qualifies that judgement a bit. He notes on p. 72 that Catherine II's manifest of 1763 prohibited the German colonists from establishing monasteries. Also, the right to missionize was restricted to the Orthodox church. Consequently, the church authorities of the Tiraspol diocese lacked an adequate number of helpers for the various charity organizations. A way around this was found by Fr. Jakob Scherr, who established the well-known orphanage in Karlsruhe in 1888. He introduced the lay-order of St. Francis (the so-called "Third Order," or "Terzianierinnen"), under the directorship of Sister Gertrud Keller (the sibling of Fr. Konrad Keller). Schnurr describes this lay order as consisting of men and women who were married and who were residing with their families and pursuing their trades, but they also wanted to become more deeply involved in charity activities and in other lay piety activities. I don't know how the seminaries got around the proscription, maybe they fell into a different legal category.
Schnurr also notes (p. 74) that the Russian authorities often raised bureaucratic barriers and restrictions against the repair and expansion of churches. Churches, chapels and prayer-houses could be constructed only where an already extant "Gotteshaus" existed. New religious structures required a special dispensation from the Ministry of the Interior (according to the Ukase of Dec. 31, 1830). The difficulties raised by the regime against the construction of new religious facilities were rather high, according to Schnurr. In the second half of the 19th century under Alex II, Alex III, and Nicholas II, dispensations for such construction were made only in special cases. "The construction and the repair of a church depended totally on the judgment of the Administration, which had ties with the Orthodox 'Eparchial' authorities" - Roland Wagner -


Churches in the Beresan Valley, Cherson, South Russia (Alphabetized by city name)


ST. ? CATHOLIC CHURCH (1907-) - Christina, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia.
Partial translations from the SCHNURR book by Father Chris ZUGGER: "The parish dates from 1821 and a stone church was built and decorated in 1907. There were 223 residents in 1915. This church was different because the bell tower was free-standing, not part of the main structure, like traditional Russian church bell towers. In 1910 a new 170 cm high statue of Our Lady Queen of Heaven was commissioned and installed. Unfortunately there are no photos of statue or church in SCHNURR book. The church was closed after 1930."


ST. ? CATHOLIC CHURCH (1907-) - Felsenberg, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia.
At its founding, there was no church in Felsenberg, so the inhabitants had to attend church in Christina to the southwest.
Father Chris ZUGGER writes: "This village was a filial church of Christina (Chrestina), so there is no information on it in the Schnurr book. Filial churches were ones visited by the priest from the main church. Felsenburg was taken away from Christina as a filial church in the early 1920s."

a.   b.
ST. PETER & PAUL CATHOLIC CHURCH (1885-present) - Karlsruhe, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia. a) Drawing of the church in the late 1800's. b) What the dilapidated church looks like in 1998. The first church was built in 1830.


ST. PIUS CATHOLIC CHURCH (1896-) - Katharinental, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia.
Partial translations from the SCHNURR book by Father Chris ZUGGER: "The colony is from 1817; in 1926 there were 2,320 residents; in 1943, 2,068 residents. It was built at the intersection of 4 streets in 1868/69 and dedicated to St Pius V. Consecrated only in 1896 - debt free by then or permission from imperial government to do so. It was a very ornate church until 1934 when it was looted: stations of the cross were on stone with gold background; gothic confessional; Sacred Heart altar w/ statue; high altar of stone with carved tabernacle of wood with gold trim; St. Peter statue; Mother of God altar with statue of Mary and Jesus; baptismal font; pulpit had sound-reflecting shell behind it; organ. A war time picture shows a barren church with two holy pictures nailed to a wall on either side of the sanctuary. The Tower were 38 meters high; nave 34 meters long and 11 across and 8.5 meters high. The church had 6 stained glass windows. The last priest was the famous Father Valentin GREINER. He was the last priest left functioning in the whole region because of his great age and blindness, and many people went to him secretly after 1933."


ST. RAPHAEL CATHOLIC CHURCH (1896) - Landau, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia


ST. NICHOLOUS CATHOLIC CHURCH (1872-) - München, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia

Partial translations from the SCHNURR book by Father Chris ZUGGER: "The München colony dates from 1810. In 1943 there were 1,773 residents. The last priest was Anton Froehlich, arrested in 1934. The church was built in 1872 in neo-classical style in stone, with a large front tower. The church was built of stone and was mostly a Polish parish with about 1, 000 in 1904, and 209 Germans and others. It had a mission; in 1919/20 the parish had 2,245 faithful. The last priest listed was in 1928, just before collectivization.


ST. FRANCIS XAVIER CATHOLIC CHURCH (1872) - Rastadt, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia
The first church was built in 1812


ST. MARTIN CATHOLIC CHURCH (1896) - Speier, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia


NATIVITY of the BLESSED VIRGIN CATHOLIC CHURCH (1896) - Sulz, Beresan, Cherson, South Russia


ST. CLEMENT CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL (1881-) - Saratov, South Russia
This Tiraspol diocese cathedral was consecrated 20 May 1881. The Bishop's Palace and the Diocesan Cemetery was also located in Saratov.


ASSUMPTION CATHEDRAL (1853-present) - Odessa, South Russia
Father Chris ZUGGER writes, "Assumption was the German parish church in Odessa and, in 1920, became the cathedral parish due to Bolshevik persecution in Saratov where St. Clement Cathedral is located. In 1937, Assumption was taken over for use as a stable, and again used as a church between 1942 and 1945. Then it was closed and used as a sports hall. It is now the cathedral church for the new Roman Catholic diocese of Odessa-Cherson.
Odessa was a 'planned city' under Governor Richeliu and quite cosmopolitan until the late 1920s. In 1919-20, Assumption parish and Saint-Pierre counted nearly 15 000 Catholics in Odessa. Assumption had preachers in German, Italian, French, Polish to accommodate the faithful. Most were Polish, with Germans as the 2nd largest community. The parish dates to 1805 but the current church is from 1853, with a tower in Italian Campanile style. Much of the decoration was Renaissance in style, and the interior was covered in marble. The church was renovated in 1897 and had numerous side altars and shrines, with an enormous High Altar crowned by a statue of the Virgin. Behind the altar was a painting of the Assumption of the Virgin into heaven, given by the King Ludwig I of Bavaria. One shrine had a painting of the Holy Family by the artist van Dyck; St. Francis also had an altar; St. Cecelia with organ, and Mother of Sorrows altar/ Pieta. That painting of Mary was by Carlo Dolci and cost 25,000 rubles in 1858. The St. Cecelia was by Jacopo Vignali about 1686.
The church functioned until it was closed in 1937 and the last priest, Josef Boehm, was arrested, in the Great Terror. the painting of Our Lady assumed into heaven was replaced with an image of Stalin, but the painting fortunately was put into a museum where it was recovered in 1941 and restored to the church in 1942. The church was closed again after the war ended, when the missionaries in the city were arrested; but opened in 1947 under a Polish priest. Mrs. Rosa BRAXMEIER BEIGLER was honored by the Pope in 1974 for her work as the organist and choir director. She worked for many years in the parish in those capacities, which were actually quite dangerous in Soviet times. I know of organists who were deported even in the 1960s. Rosa died in Canada.
Saint-Pierre was the French parish. It was closed after 1937, and reopened by missionaries in 1942. It was closed again in 1945, but finally reopened. This is still called the French Church even though there aren't many French descendants left in the parish or city. The cemetery still exists. Its monuments were never pulled down."


According to a historical source, in 1913 the three Odessa parishes (the cathedral, St. Peter's Church and St. Clement's Church) had many thousands of faithful. From recall, St. Clement's parish was the largest and it had 17,000 faithful; the cathedral had 15,000 and St. Peter's had 10,000. The three church buildings were centers for three ethnic parishes. St. Clement's was mostly attended by Poles, who built a railway here. Germans went to the cathedral on Katerynynska Street, and the congregation of St. Peter's was predominantly French and Italian. Worldwide Ukrainian Catholic Church web site: www.ugcc.org.ua


US Directory of the Catholic Church ParishesOnline.com

NORTH DAKOTA CHURCHES (Alphabetized by city name)


  a. b.
ST. PLACIDUS CATHOLIC CHURCH (1904-1980's) - Burt (or St. Placidus/Willa), Hettinger Co., ND
a) St. Placidus Church viewed from the cemetery. b) St Placidus' Station of the Cross #10 which was donated by Sebastian ROLL (1873-1930) . With the first church built in 1904, St. Placidus was a very promising location with a store, nice church & rectory, Catholic school, and widower's residence. The church was tore down in the 1980's after vandals ransacked it. The cemetery remains. The altar and baptismal is now at St. Vincent's in Mott, ND. The beautiful stain-glassed windows are in a church in Bismarck, ND.

a.
ST. JOSEPH'S CATHOLIC CHURCH () - Dickinson, Stark Co., ND
a) Inside the church in 1902.


ST. PETER & PAUL CATHOLIC CHURCH (1904-) - South of Hebron, Stark, ND

a.   b.
SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH () - Glen Ullin, ND
a) On the left is the first church. The 2nd church is on the right which was tore down and then the modern church (b) was built.


ST. VINCENT'S CATHOLIC CHURCH (190?) - Mott, Hettinger Co., ND


ST. STEPHEN'S CATHOLIC CHURCH (1900) - North of Mott, in Stark Co., ND

a.  
ST MARY'S CATHOLIC CHURCH (1883) - Richardton, Stark Co., ND
a) Erected as a Presbyterian church. The Catholics aquired it in 1907

a. 
ASSUMPTION ABBY / St. Mary's Parish (1907) - Richardton, Stark Co., ND
a) The Abby in 1899.


ST. PETER'S CATHOLIC CHURCH (1924-1976) - Taylor, Stark Co., ND


1618 GERMAN RELIGION MAP

CHURCH EVOLUTION IN GERMANY AND AMERICA.




1900 EUROPEAN NATIONS RELIGION MAP




GERMAN-AMERICAN CHURCH GENEALOGY CHART

CHURCH EVOLUTION IN GERMANY AND AMERICA.




CURRENT RUSSIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH MAP

CHURCH CONGREGATIONS AND PRIEST RESIDENCES.




ROLL Reunion

"The German is like a willow.
No matter which way you bend him,
he will always take root again."
- Alexander Solzhenitsyn -


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