GALICIA MAP - 1882
This 1836 map of Eastern Europe shows Poland (Kongresówka), Prussia (East Prussia, West Prussia, Posen), Silesia Hungary, Galicia and Bukovina, Republic of Cracow (Kraków, Krakau), Transylvania, Vojvodina (Serbia), N. Croatia, Moldavia, and Ukraine. Budapest is shown as two cities: Buda or Ofen and Pesth. Gjör is called Raab, Debrecen - Debreczin, Pecs - Fünfkirchen, Székesfehérvár - Stuhl Weissenburg, Balaton - Platten See, Bratislava - Presburg, Szabadka/Subotica - Maria-Theresienstadt, Sibiu - Hermanstadt, Brasov - Kronstadt, Cluj-Napoca - Clausenburg, Timisoara - Temesvar, Lwów/Lviv - Lemberg, etc.
Congress Kingdom of Poland, also called Kongresówka, Polish state created by the Congress of Vienna. It was ruled by the tsars of Russia until its loss in World War I. The Kingdom of Poland comprised the bulk of the former Grand Duchy of Warsaw and was bordered on the north and west by the Prussian provinces of East Prussia, Poznan, and Silesia, on the south by the Austrian province of Galicia, and on the east by Russia. It was united with Russia through the person of the king (that is, the tsar of Russia was also the king of Poland), was guaranteed autonomy by the Congress, and was presented with a constitution (Nov. 27, 1815) by Tsar Alexander I that provided the kingdom with its own administration, Sejm (legislature), army, and broad civil liberties. After the Polish uprising of 1830-31, however, Tsar Nicholas I replaced the kingdom's constitution with the Organic Statute, which created a firmer union between the Congress Kingdom and the Russian Tsar and disbanded the Polish Sejm and army; he also imposed upon the Poles a military dictatorship. After a new rebellion in 1863, Tsar Alexander II transformed the Congress Kingdom into a province of the Russian Empire.
Galicia (Polish Galicja) is a historic region of eastern Europe (in present-day Poland and Ukraine). When Poland was first partitioned in 1772, eastern Galicia, together with the territory to the west, between the San and the Vistula, was attached to Austria; and in 1795 further lands, both west and east of the Vistula, passed also to Austria. From 1786 to 1849 Austria administered the territory of Bukovina as part of Galicia. After the adjustments of 1815 (Congress of Vienna), Austria's Polish possessions were called the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria; and the 1815 Republic of Cracow was added to them in 1846. Bukovina (in present-day Romania and Ukraine) is an eastern European territory consisting of a segment of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plain. Settled by both Ukrainians (Ruthenians) and Romanians (Moldavians), Bukovina acquired its own name and identity only in 1775, when it was ceded to Austria by the Turks, who then controlled Moldavia. Austria, which regarded Bukovina as a strategic link between Transylvania and Galicia, administered it first as a part of Galicia (1786-1849) and then as a duchy and a separate crown land.
Transylvania is a historic eastern European region (in present-day Romania). When the Turks decisively defeated Hungary at the Battle of Mohács (1526), Transylvania effectively became independent. Its voivode John (János Zápolya), who was elected king of Hungary (November 1526), engaged Transylvania in a 12-year war against Ferdinand I, the Habsburg claimant to the Hungarian throne. Afterward Hungary was divided between the Habsburgs and the Turks, and Transylvania was transformed into an autonomous principality that was subject to Turkish suzerainty (1566). During the next century Transylvania played off the Turkish sultan against the Habsburg emperor to retain its independent status. During the reign (1648-60) of György Rékóczi II, the Turks, trying to curb Transylvania's growing power, stripped it of its vital western territory. Shortly afterward, the Turks were defeated before Vienna (1683). The Transylvanians, their land overrun by the troops of the Habsburg emperor, then recognized the suzerainty of the emperor Leopold I.
Vojvodina is a region of Yugoslavia within the republic of Serbia. It is the northernmost part of Yugoslavia, bordered by Croatia to the west, Hungary to the north, and Romania to the east. The Vojvodina includes the historic regions of Backa (Bacs), between the Danube and Tisa rivers and the Hungarian border; Banat, to the east of Backa; and Srem, to the south. The Ottoman Turks controlled the region from the early 16th to the late 18th century. During that time, many Serbs emigrated to the Vojvodina from Serbia proper, which was under Ottoman rule. With the region's incorporation into the Austrian Habsburg empire later in the 18th century, large numbers of Hungarians, Germans, and Romanians also migrated to the area. This region, called the Military Frontier, underwent a succession of changes in its political status during the 19th century. The civil and military regions were again separated in 1867-68: the Military Frontier remained attached to Austria, and the other segments reverted to the Hungarian crown.
Good WWII Book: Galicia Division: The Waffen-SS 14th grenadier Division 1943-1945, by Michael O. Logusz. This book is a historical account of the 14th Waffen-SS Galicia Division (also known as the 1st Ukrainian Division of the Ukrainian National Army). In 1943/1944 a determined group of young men and women in Galicia volunteered to serve in a combat division destined for eastern front combat. Their goal: to engage and destroy the Soviet hordes menacing their homeland and to counter Nazi Germany's subjugation of their country. Although initially Galicia's Volunteers would serve in a German sponsored military formation, in actuality the volunteers of the Galicia division wanted to engage all hostile ideologies-both from the east and west-in order to secure a free independent Ukraine. The division's history is presented along with a human aspect of what the soldiers endured during the brutal battles on the eastern front.